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Ventajas medioambientales de las torres de refrigeración

Intercambiadores Sondex, Intercambiador de placas, Aero enfriadores, Torres de refrigeracion, Legionella
Publicado por en Torres de Refrigeración ·

Constituyen un elemento esencial en la generación y ahorro de energía y además contribuyen en mucha menor medida al cambio climático que el resto de sus competidores. Emiten vapor inocuo procedente de la evaporación de agua y su utilización favorece la eficiencia energética y disminuye el efecto invernadero.

   

                    



La  opinión de:

Manuel Lamúa, Secretario General de ANEFRYC

                                            

Las torres de refrigeración de agua y condensadores evaporativos, tecnología utilizada en casi todas las aplicaciones industriales en que se necesita refrigeración, como aire acondicionado para edificios, industrias petroquímicas y farmacéuticas, industria alimentaria, industria automovilística, producción de acero, fabricación de componentes de electrónica y semiconductores, centrales eléctricas, plantas de cogeneración, refrigeración industrial y de maquinaria, son un instrumento eficaz de ahorro energético en un momento en que la lucha contra el cambio climático es una prioridad.

Las ventajas medioambientales de este tipo de instalaciones se pueden resumir en cuatro puntos:

Ahorro energético: Tanto por su aplicación como por su diseño los equipos ahorran energía y reducen la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero.
Seguridad: La aplicación de estos equipos reducen el riesgo de fugas o escapes nocivos de refrigerante en las instalaciones frigoríficas.
Menor consumo de recursos: El ahorro de agua, comparado con un sistema de refrigeración de un solo paso, supera el 95 por ciento. El agua de enfriamiento es recirculada y sólo se pierde una mínima parte por evaporación.
Bajo impacto medioambiental: Nivel sonoro mínimo y expulsión de vapor de agua pura.

ANEFRYC, Asociación Nacional de Empresas del Frío y Refrigeración, subraya la importancia de que la industria se conciencie de los beneficios de esta tecnología. La Comisión Técnica de la Asociación ha estimado que sustituir las torres y condensadores evaporativos de las instalaciones de refrigeración y aire acondicionado existentes en España por aerorefrigeradores y condensadores enfriados por aire supondría incrementar la potencia eléctrica generada en aproximadamente 2.700 MW, lo cual equivale a construir, para asumir tal incremento, 3 centrales nucleares de tipo medio o 7 centrales térmicas de ciclo combinado. Hecho que agravaría los ya serios problemas de suministro eléctrico que tiene España e incrementaría las emisiones de gases efecto invernadero.
La eficiencia energética de las torres de refrigeración y condesadores evaporativos se deriva, básicamente, del menor consumo de energía eléctrica de estos equipos y de la utilización de agua, que, además, se devuelve al ambiente en forma de vapor, en el proceso de enfriado del agua de condensación de las instalaciones frigoríficas, en relación con los equipos que realizan la condensación por aire. Se trata de una tecnología limpia y económica que debería ser tenida en cuenta en las políticas de control del cambio climático de empresas y gobiernos.

La postura de ANEFRYC se ha visto refrendada por instituciones tan prestigiosas como la Royal Society of Chemistry (Real Sociedad de Química) de Reino Unido que, en un reciente informe, concluye que, con independencia del tipo de fuentes energéticas que se utilicen en el futuro, las torres de refrigeración constituirán un elemento esencial en la generación de energía y ahorro de la misma, teniendo en cuenta que no contribuyen al cambio climático. Esta realidad contrasta con los datos del mismo informe que revela que más de dos terceras partes de los ciudadanos británicos –dato extrapolable a otros países europeos– creen que las torres de refrigeración producen emisiones perjudiciales, enviando dióxido de carbono a la atmósfera y acelerando así el cambio climático, cuando, en realidad, emiten vapor inocuo procedente de la evaporación de agua y su utilización favorece el ahorro energético y disminuye el efecto invernadero.

Así mismo, la revista Fortune ha premiado también durante este año a la cadena de supermercados estadounidenses Wal-Mart, el vendedor minorista más grande del mundo con más de 3.000 establecimientos repartidos en una decena de países, por su política de ahorro energético. En ella, se destaca que la cadena ha abierto una primera tienda en la que utilizará un 20 por ciento menos de energía que un supermercado tradicional gracias, entre otras cosas, a la instalación de equipos de refrigeración evaporativa.




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